The maps of the three delivery companies serving the area. Only the post in blue, being a former public service, still provides door-to-door delivery. This implies higher mileage driven and running costs compared to the competitors, who required the receiver to pick up the parcels at local nodes at a distances between 26 and 46 kilometer. One of the companies, in red, finds it more efficient to ship the parcels south to their main node in Stockholm before reaching the north again.
Below: Visualisation of a preliminary test conducted in the city of Umeå and described in the paper " Hacking delivery systems: Exploring design tools for user-led innovation in urban infrastructures"